Jewish Coins

The coins of the Procurators

The time of Jesus and the New Testament

you will find the pages to these coins according to the book of Ya'akov Meshorer, Jewish Coins of the Second Temple Period, Tel Aviv 1967. at the end of the listing. There are no substantial changes against the later editions of Meshorer.

The Catalogue of Ya'akov Meshorer
 
 

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Procurator Marcus Ambibulus: Roman knight, governor of Judaea (9-12AD) (M 218)

AE Prutah Obverse: KAICAPOC (of Caesar). Ear of barley curved to right. Reverse: Eight-branched palm-tree bearing two bunches of dates;

Mint: Judaea L M - Year 40 = 10AD LMA -

The palm depicted is the date palm. The tree was a symbol of Judea where palm tress grow in greater numbers than the surrounding areas. The Romans also used it as a symbol of Judea on Judaea Capta coins. The palm also symbolized abundance and plenty, dignity, royal honor, jubilation and victory and was used in religious processions.

fine

2,19 gr

45,- Euro

 

According to the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, Marcus Ambibulus was one of the Roman governors of Judaea. His tenure of office is usually dated between 9 and 12, although a slightly later date is possible. Although Josephus does not mention Ambibulus' exact titles, we know from an inscription found at Caesarea that one of his successors, Pontius Pilate, was a perfect, so we can assume that Ambibulus was a prefect too. We know hardly anything about the man, although, as a prefect, he must have belonged to the equestrian order - the second class of the Roman elite, after the senators. He was appointed by the emperor Augustus and succeeded Coponius. Josephus writes: Marcus Ambibulus came to be Coponius' successor. During his governorship, Salome, the sister of king Herod, died, and left to Livia Jamnia, all its toparchy, and Phasaelis in the plain, and Arehelais, with a great plantation of palm trees that offers fruit that is excellent in its kind. After Ambibulus came Annius Rufus. [Flavius Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 18.31] This is all we know about this Marcus Ambibulus. Probably, he did his job well, because a bad governor would have been faced with rebellion, something that Josephus is always eager to mention. His silence suggests that Ambibulus was a fine administrator.

Julia

The name Julia, in Grece IOYLIA, is found a lot of the Procuratorien coins. Julia had great possessions in Eretz Israel, for instance the oasis of Jericho.
LIVIA旸RVSILLA, LIVIA旳VGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29 ), after her AD 14 marriage called Livia Augusta, and often known as Olivia Druscilla, Julia Augusta, and Caesarina Olivia, was a Roman empress as the third wife of the Emperor Augustus and his adviser. She was the mother of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal great-grandmother of the Emperor Caligula, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Claudius, and maternal great-great grandmother of the Emperor Nero. She was deified by Claudius who acknowledged her title of Augusta.

 

Valerius Gratus (M 221)

Obv.: Inscription in wreath: IOY/LIA Rev.: Palm branch; across field: LB (year 2) = 15 CE. Bronze prutah. 1.95 gram.

rare

fine

1,95

130,- Euro

 

Valerius Gratus was Roman Prefect or procurator of Judea under Tiberius, AD 15 - 26. He succeeded Annius Rufus and was replaced by Pontius Pilate. The government of Gratus is chiefly remarkable for the frequent changes he made in the appointment of the high-priesthood. He deposed Ananus, and substituted Ismael, son of Fabi, then Eleazar, son of Arianus, then Simon, son of Camith, and lastly Joseph Caiaphas, the son-in-law of Ananus.

 

Valerius Gratus (M 222)

Obv.: Inscription in wreath: KAI/CAP Rev.: Double cornucopiae, crossed, above , incr. TIBEPIOY across field: LG (year 3) = 16 CE. Bronze prutah. 1.75 gram.

rare

very fine

1,75

140,- Euro

 

Valerius Gratus (M 223)

Obv.: Inscription in wreath: IOV/LIA Rev.: Three lilies; across field: LG (year 3) = 16 CE. Bronze prutah. 1.75 gram.

For the name IOYLIA see under Ambibulus above

rare

very fine

1,75

180,- Euro

 

Valerius Gratus (M 224)

Obv.: out of center. Rev.: narroe necked amphora; across field: LD (year 4) = 17 CE. Bronze prutah. 2,04 gram.

rare

fine

2,04

150,- Euro

 

 

Valerius Gratus (M 227)

Obv.: Inscription in wreath: TIB/KAI/CAP Rev.: Palm branch; incriptian: IOYLIA, across field: LE (year 5) = 18 CE. Bronze prutah. 2,26 gram.

very fine

2,26 gr

55,- Euro

 

Valerius Gratus (M 227)

Obv.: Inscription in wreath: TIB/KAI/CAP Rev.: Palm branch; incriptian: IOYLIA, across field: LIA (year 11) = 24 CE. Bronze prutah. 2,01 gram.

fine

2,01 gr

35,- Euro

There is a slight possibility that this coins belongs to Pontius Pilatus as his first coin. Normally it is stated that this coin is the last one of Valerius Gratus. The next coins edited in Judea by the procurators are the two coins of Pontius Pilatus with pagan motives, the first has the date 29. Normally a new procurator edited coin of his own in the beginning of his reign. So it would be strange that Pontius Pilatus started so late. The exact beginning of the rule of Pontius Pilatus is not clear.

 

Pontius Pilatus

There are three dates of the coins of Pontius Pilatus, 29-31 CE. Most historians believe that one of the years around 30 is the year of the death of Jesus.

Pontius Pilatus (M 229)

Obv.: Simpulum; TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC LIU (Year 16 of Tiberius) = 29CE. Rev.:Three ears of grain tied together; IOYLIA KAISAROS. Bronze prutah. 2,09 gram.

Very fine.

 

95,- Euro

Pontius Pilate was the Equestrian procurator of the Roman province of Judaea from AD 26-36. Typically referenced as the fifth Procurator of Judaea, he is best known as the judge at Jesus' trial and the man who authorized his crucifixion. Pilatus was the first procurator in Palestine using pagan utensils on his coins. All his predecessors used only symbols tolerable to the Jewish religion. The Simpulum is a vessel for offerings in the Roman pagan cult.

 

Pontius Pilatus (M 230)

Obv.: Lituus; TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC Rev.: Date in wreath: LIZ (Year 17) = 30 CE. Bronze prutah. 1.73 gram

Very fine.

 

95,- Euro

"The Lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand. It symbolized their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priest invoked the Gods and made their predictions As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional because it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face." (Jean-Philippe Fontaine)

 

Pontius Pilatus (M 230)

Obv.: Lituus; TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC Rev.: Date in wreath: LIZ (Year 17) = 30 CE. Bronze prutah. 1.83 gram The Z of the date is retrograde

Very fine.

 

85,- Euro

Some scholars think that the retrograde Z is maybe not retrograde and not a Z, but the Greek letter for the number 6 Diagamma, then this coin would be from the year 29 C.E.

 

Pontius Pilatus (M 231)

Obv.: Lituus; TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC Rev.: Date in wreath: LIH (Year 18) = 31 CE. Bronze prutah.1,79 gr.

exelant

150,- Euro

 

Antonius Felix (52-60 CE) (M 232)

Obverse: Inscription witin wreath: IOY/LIA AG/PIPPI/NA. Reverse: Two palm branches, crossed, bertween them date: LID (year 14 of Claudius = 54 CE) around incr.: TI KLAYDIOC KAICAR GERM.

Julia Agrippina is the wife of Claudius
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus

very fine

2,32 gr

55,- Euro

Marcus Antonius Felix born between 5/10. was the Roman procurator of Judea Province 52-59, in succession to Ventidius Cumanus. Marcus Marcus Antonius Felix was a brother of Marcus Antonius Pallas, a freedman and influential secretary to the emperor Claudius. Thanks to this good connection Felix first received a military command and was later made procurator of Samaria, the northern part of the province of Judea. At the same time, Claudius bestowed new territories upon to king Julius Marcus Agrippa (Agrippa II). After Felix and his colleague in the southern part of Judea , Ventidius Cumanus, quarrelled Felix was rewarded by the emperor with the latter's procuratorship as well. During his governorship, Felix behaved with cruelty and licentiousness, and was open to bribery. To put down the Zealots he favoured an even more violent sect, the Sicarii (" Dagger-men "), by whose aid he contrived the murder of the high-priest Jonathan. According to the Acts of the Apostles, the apostle Paul was put on trial, but Felix never pronounced sentence, because he was hoping for bribes. Nevertheless, the Paul was kept imprisoned for two years (56-58). It was left to Felix's successor, Porcius Festus, to deal with Paul by sending him to Rome. (Conf. Acts 23.17-23.35, 24.1-24.27 )

 

Antonius Felix (52-60 CE) (M 233)

Obv.: Two oblong shields and two spears; Inscr.: NERO KLAY KAISAR Rev.: palm tree; above: BRIT; below: LID/KAI (year 14 of Claudius)=54 CE. Bronze prutah. 2.61 gram

Nero Claudius Caesar, the son of Claudius

very fine

2,61 gr

65,- Euro

 

Antonius Felix (52-60 CE) (M 234)

Obv.: Inscription in wreath: NER/ONO/S. Rev.: Palm branch; LE KAICAPOC (year 5 of Nero) = 59 CE. Bronze prutah. 2,30 gram.

very fine

2,30 gr

65,- Euro

 

Antonius Felix (52-60 CE) (M 234)

Obv.: Inscription in wreath: NER/ONO/S. Rev.: Palm branch; LE KAICAPOC (year 5 of Nero) = 59 CE. Bronze prutah. 2,30 gram.

The same as above, but the letters in a cruel style

very fine

2,30 gr

65,- Euro